X-ray diffraction (XRD)
X-ray diffraction (XRD) involves using x-ray beams to hit an object and observing the incident and deflection angle of the beams (ie, measuring the diffraction).
XRD techniques are used extensively in a broad range of industries due to their ability to accurately detect, differentiate and analyse materials ranging from contraband drugs and explosives to metal coatings and silicon. XRD is an indispensable method for materials characterisation and quality control; it is a fast, cost-effective and non-destructive analytical technique.
XRD is widely used for the identification and quantification of unknown crystalline materials (such as minerals or inorganic compounds); it can determine the type and amount of material and is critical to geology, environmental science, material science, engineering and biology.